Post-Conviction

Alabama Expungement Statute is Almost Useless

When the law passed, the current Alabama expungement statute was received with great fanfare. However, the statute was too heavily amended on the floor of the Senate to be very effective. Having a broad expungement statute is so beneficial.

AL.com published article detailing the collateral consequences of arrest in Alabama generally but specifically if the person is wrongfully accused.

After felony charges against Steven McDowell were dropped and another person turned himself in for the crimes, the Army reservist from Huntsville still wasn’t free. McDowell was left with thousands of dollars of debt, struggled to find a job and lived without utilities for over two months. That’s because even though prosecutors now consider him innocent, being falsely accused comes with a cost.

One study found that “the record clearing intervention boosts participants’ employment rates and average real earnings.”

An estimated one in three American adults has a criminal record. While some records are for serious offenses, most are for arrests or relatively low-level misdemeanors. In an era of heightened security concerns, easily available data and increased criminal background checks, these records act as a substantial barrier to gainful employment and other opportunities. Harvard sociologist Devah Pager describes people with criminal records as “marked” with a negative job credential.

The article further details the costs and hurdles to clear his record in Alabama.

To be eligible for expungement, the charges have to end with a not guilty verdict, a dismissal or through completion of a diversion program. The defendant completes an application and the judge will set a hearing date. Prosecutors may contest the expungement, but the final decision lies with the judge.

Steven McDowell was lucky. He wasn’t charged with a violent crime. If so, he would not have been eligible for expungment regardless of the baseless of the charges. (UPDATE: A violent felony can be charge can only be dismissed if the person is actually found to be not-guilty; a dismissal will not suffice.) For instance, I represented a young man charged with a Class A felony, Discharging a Firearm into an Occupied Dwelling; the charges were dismissed at the preliminary hearing. Nevertheless, this conviction will remain on his “record” until the Legislature modifies the statute. Can people be charged with “violent” crimes as frivolously as drug charges? Absolutely.

If you have actually been convicted of a crime, you cannot have your record expunged under the statute.

The expungement process is not easy or inexpensive generally.

Prosecutors may contest the expungement, but the final decision lies with the judge. To apply, the defendant must pay the state of Alabama $300 for each charge that is to be expunged and pay for copies of a $25 certified criminal history (one for each charge) and fingerprint cards from the Alabama Law Enforcement Agency. McDowell paid about $25 for his fingerprint cards, he said.

According to Al.com, “here’s the way it’s supposed to work, according to the language in the bill:”

Who’s eligible? A person who has been charged with a misdemeanor criminal offense, a traffic violation, or a municipal ordinance violation – if the charge was dismissed with prejudice, no-billed by a grand jury, the person was found not guilty of the charge, or the charge was dismissed without prejudice more than two years ago and has not been refiled.

What about felony charges? The act allows for expunging non-violent felony charges, in the event of a no-bill by a grand jury, a dismissal of the charge with prejudice, a finding of not guilty, and one year after completion of a diversion program like drug treatment, mental health treatment or veterans court. A person is also eligible, if the charge was dismissed without prejudice more than five years ago, has not been refiled, and the person has not been convicted of any other felony or misdemeanor crime, any violation, or any traffic violation, excluding minor traffic violations, during the previous five years.

What felony charges are not eligible to be expunged? Violent felonies listed in the Alabama code are not eligible, including: capital murder, murder, manslaughter, assault, kidnapping, rape, sodomy, robbery, burglary, arson, stalking, sexual abuse and domestic violence 1 and 2.

How will it work? A petition has to be filed with the circuit court in the location the charge was filed. The petition has to include: – a sworn statement that the person meets the expungement requirements; – a case action summary or certified copy of arrest and disposition; – a certified copy of the arrest record from the Alabama Criminal Justice Information Center; – description of the charges to be considered for removal and description of the agencies involved in the arrest and any incarceration; – the filing fee is $300 plus any court costs; – all court fees, restitutions, fines and fees have been paid.

Who has to be notified? A copy of the petition submitted to the circuit court also has to be provided to the district attorney’s office, the law enforcement agency and the clerk of court. The DA’s office is expected to review the petition and make an effort to notify any victims in the case.

Can the request be opposed? The DA’s office and the victims have 45 days to file a petition opposing the expungement. If the objection is filed, the court is to set a hearing date at least 14 days after the filing.

What if nobody objects? The court can review the petition and rule without a hearing.

If the court approves the request, what happens to the records? The court is to order the expungement of all records in the custody of the court and any records held by any other agency or official, including law enforcement records, except privileged investigation reports by the Alabama Board of Pardons and Paroles and files of the district attorney. The related agencies are then to certify to the court within six months that the expungement has been completed.

What if somebody asks about the case after it’s been expunged? The proceedings regarding the charge shall be deemed never to have occurred,” the act says. The court and other agencies are supposed to reply to any inquiry that “no record exists on the matter,” and the person shall not have to disclose the related facts on job or credit applications and other applications.

So it becomes totally secret? The law says a petitioner has the duty to disclose the “fact of the record” to any government, regulatory or licensing agency, any utility or its affiliates or any bank or financial institution.

Will the record exist anywhere? The related agencies have to send the records to the Alabama Criminal Justice Information Center which will archive them in a protected file. The records cannot be used for a non-justice purpose and can only be made available when a criminal justice agency provides notice of an investigation of the individual.

What records are expunged? Arrest records, booking or arrest photos, index references for public records searches and other documents or electronic files concerning the arrest or charge.

43 States Suspend Licenses for Unpaid Court Debt including Alabama

So true:

“When you are faced with the uncertainty of potentially being pulled over and being incarcerated versus the certainty of losing your job and not being able to provide for your family, most people would choose to drive, and that’s what most people choose,” says Angela Ciolfi, a lawyer representing Taylor and the other plaintiffs in the Virginia suit. “We don’t live in a society where most people can rely on public transportation and work and shop and meet their basic needs without driving.”

Alabama is one of 43 states, plus the District of Columbia, that suspends driver’s licenses for people with unpaid court debt, according a recent report by the Legal Aid Justice Center, a Virginia-based organization that filed a lawsuit there challenging the practice.

The Alabama Rules of Criminal Rules state:
If the court orders a defendant to pay a fine and/or restitution imposed as a result of a traffic infraction, the court may suspend the defendant’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state upon a failure of the defendant to comply with the order of the court. If the defendant’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been suspended for failure to comply with such court order, the privilege may remain suspended until the total amount of the fine and/or restitution imposed is paid.
I haven’t seen many times that a court proactively actually suspends the license for failure to pay. However, a court can do this regardless of ability to pay. The operative word in the rule is “may.” Its discretionary. A court needs to affirmatively pursue this option.
On the other hand, Alabama will suspend your license of failing to appear for a hearing. And this is automatic; a judge does not need to specifically act. As soon as the clerk transmits the notice of the FTA to Department of Public Safety, the license is suspended.

We need more Veterans Courts

“Roughly one in 12 people in America’s prisons and jails is a veteran. Often, they’ve ended up in prison because of behavior resulting from injuries and trauma sustained during service. Many are serving absurdly long sentences for low-level drug offenses, having turned to drugs as a way of coping with PTSD and adjusting to life after tours of duty. And almost always, they are forgotten on this solemn day.”

If you or your family member are a veteran and are caught in the modern American criminal justice system, contact the VA Veterans Justice Outreach.  Its mission:

The aim of the Veterans Justice Outreach (VJO) program is to avoid the unnecessary criminalization of mental illness and extended incarceration among Veterans by ensuring that eligible, justice-involved Veterans have timely access to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services, as clinically indicated. VJO specialists provide direct outreach, assessment and case management for justice-involved Veterans in local courts and jails and liaison with local justice system partners.

More critically, Alabama has made strides towards establishment of Veterans Courts in each county in the state. There are approximately 20 Veterans courts active in Alabama. A Veterans court allows veterans charged with a crime to complete a program of treatment and counseling in exchange for dismissing the charges. Its not easy though. For instance, in Baldwin County,

Those efforts kicked off the court one year ago with a focus on helping veterans facing criminal charges to get their records expunged. The kicker: They have to attend the court every Tuesday, accomplish a series of tasks, and maintain a clean record for one year. . . For the veterans who attend the court, they will work through their problems – whether it’s drug or alcohol addiction, or something else – with a “team” that consists of a coordinator, defense attorney (who is a veteran), a prosecutor from the District Attorney’s Office, a volunteer from AltaPointe who specializes in substance abuse and treatment (also a veteran), a veterans’ outreach specialist from the Veterans Administration, a counselor, a volunteer life coach, and a team of 15 mentors.

New Sex Offender Requirements in Alabama

American courts have approved the practice of ever-increasing the punishment for sex offenses. Seemingly in every session of the Legislature, some new restriction or requirement is lopped into an already substantial set of notifications, registration, residential and employment restrictions, and other scarlet letters. In its last session, the Alabama Legislature passed such an additional requirement: Ala. Code § 15-20A-17:
(b)(1) No adult sex offender, after having been convicted of a sex offense involving a minor, shall enter onto the property of a K-12 school while school is in session or attend any K-12 school activity unless the adult sex offender does all of the following: (a) Notifies the principal of the school, or his or her designee, before entering onto the property or attending the K-12 school activity. (b) Immediately reports to the principal of the school, or his or her designee, upon entering the property or arriving at the K-12 school activity. and (c) Complies with any procedures established by the school to monitor the whereabouts of the sex offender for the duration of his or her presence on the school property or attendance at the K-12 school activity. For a public K-12 school, the local school board shall adopt a policy to effectuate this section. . . .Any person who violates … subsection (b) shall be guilty of a Class C felony.
A “K-12 activity” is defined broadly:

For the purposes of this subsection, a K-12 school activity is an activity sponsored by a school in which students in grades K-12 are the primary intended participants or for whom students in grades K-12 are the primary intended audience including, but not limited to, school instructional time, after school care, after school tutoring, athletic events, field trips, school plays, or assemblies.
This law is quite unnecessary. Any school board could pass whatever restrictions or regulations for a sex offender entering school board property. They own the land and can trespass any person from the premises just as any other land owner.
As I recently encountered, the prosecution of this statute may be stalled because the local school board has yet to pass “policy to effectuate this section.” Accordingly, its very possible that the statute is not in effect unless the local school board as passed policy “to effectuate” the statute. The statute employees the “effectuates” language in fact twice within the statute.
One, this is a perfectly normal mode of operation. 
Second, the language is quite unambiguous. The term “effectuate” means “to make effective.” But if its not clear, then t

IL Court Reverses Conviction of Man Jailed for 19 Years in Rape and Murder

According to the reports, a man convicted of Rape and Murder has had his convictions set aside for lack of evidence.

In an opinion that harshly criticizes the tactics of the police and prosecutors, an Illinois appellate court on Friday night reversed the conviction of Juan Rivera, who has spent 19 years in jail for the 1992 rape and murder of an 11-year-old baby sitter in a suburb of Chicago.

Mr. Rivera, who is 39 and serving a life sentence, has been convicted three times for killing the sitter, Holly Staker, based on the strength of a confession that was obtained after four days of questioning. There was no physical evidence linking him to the crime, which occurred in Waukegan, Ill., and DNA testing in 2005 excluded him as the source of sperm found in Holly’s body. . .

In its opinion, the appellate court on Friday said the confession was highly suspect and was not enough for a “rational trier of fact” to conclude that Mr. Rivera was guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. For instance, while prosecutors insisted that Mr. Rivera’s confession contained details only the killer would know, the court said that detectives had fed some details to him by asking leading questions and that some other facts had been made public in newspaper articles.

In 2011, 21 people were exonerated & released from prison for crime they didn’t commit.

Per the Justice Network:

A report released today by the Innocence Network reveals that 21 people across the country were exonerated by Innocence Network member organizations for crimes they didn’t commit in the past year. Two men served more than 3 decades behind bars before being exonerated.